Deducing Conclusions Questions 1 - 4
Please read the statement below, and consider the content as being completely true. For each of the four conclusions that follow, please indicate whether it is necessary from the statement (select ‘Conclusion follows‘), or whether it is not a necessary conclusion from the statement. (select ‘Conclusion does not follow‘)
Evaluating Evidence Questions 5-8
In you think that the proposed conclusion follows beyond a reasonable doubt (even though it may not be fully substantiated by the information in the statement), select ‘Conclusion follows; If you think that the conclusion does not followed beyond a reasonable doubt from the information provided, select ‘Conclusion does not follow’.
Judging Arguments Questions 9-12
For the purpose of this test, you are to regard each argument as true. You must them decide whether each argument is strong or weak (select ‘Strong argument‘ or ‘Weak argument’). For an argument to be strong, it must be both important and directly related to the question.
Greater Chester School offers an after-school club exclusively for its own pupils, which has the capacity for 60%of the school’s children. There is always a waiting list, of which 90% is for children of full-time working mothers. This year, thirty-five percent of the children attending the club have Mums who work part-time, with a larger proportion having Mums working full-time; and there are no children using the club whose Mums do not work. Children who attend the club have a reading age above the national average.
The number of students who are taking a gap year before starting work is increasing year on year by approximately 20%, and this year the figure reached 2.5 million. Whilst the majority of student choosing to travel do so after university before starting work, the largest percentage increase is for students who travel post A-levels before starting university. Rather than travelling for a year, ‘snap gaps’, which have an average length of 54 days, are becoming increasingly popular with students. Eighty-five percent of snap gaps are taken by pre-university students.
In the UK supermarket industry, customer loyalty has been decreasing year on year for the past 5 years. Customers’ shopping habits are now influenced by a combination of price and choice. Consumers are choosing to shop at the new smaller supermarkets, which offer discounted prices on a reduced range of products, over the long-established major supermarkets that offer much greater choice but at a higher price.
Over half of new businesses that have started up since the financial crisis in 2008 have failed within the first 5 years of trading. The construction industry has been the hardest hit with the lowest 5-year post-crisis survival rate at 44%. The main reasons for the increased failure rate are complex tax regulations, the lack of banking lending, and the administration costs of running a business.
In 1986, 90% of sun-seeking holiday-markers opted for a half-board or full-boar hotel package, the latter being the most profitable, the remaining 10% chose self-catering. During 1990s, ‘All inclusive’ holidays become more readily available in the holiday market. Profitability of this type of holiday increased year on year, and an industry trend report in 2014 showed that All Inclusive holidays accounted for the largest proportion of annual overseas package holidays taken from the UK.
In 1975, 15% of working adults had worked for the same employer for over 30 years and moving between employers was relatively uncommon. A further 45% of of the working adult population had been with their employer for over 20 years. By 2014, these patterns were more or less reversed: only 15% of working adults had been with the same employer for over 20 years and 40% of working adults had spent less than 3 years with any single employer.
Ellora Munroe is one of the most prolific painters of our era. One private collection is estimated to house over 50% of her still life paintings. The National Art Gallery exhibits the UK’s largest publically-viewable collection of Munroe’s work, including her celebrated abstract depiction of the Opening Ceremony of the 2012 Olympics.
In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced in London. By 2006, traffic in the city centre was reduced by 21%, which equated to approximately 70,000 cars being left at home each day. Of those drivers who left their cars at home, half o them opted for public transport; 30% chose to avoid travelling to the congestion zone; and the remainder used lift-shares, motorbikes or bicycles. Bus journeys were up by 15% and taxi usage increased by 20%.
Should zero-hour contracts be banned in the UK to increase financial stability and job security?
Should scientists be spending limited the research into the universe when we have so many uncured diseases on earth?
Should all employers allow employees time each week during working hours for charitable work so that many good causes benefit from volunteers’ time?
Should Health and Safety departments impose rules on employees obliging them to wear protective equipment to minimize the frequency of workplace accidents and maximize productivity?